Bob Hoffman:

The fraud is known as “Judy.” To give you a sense of its size, Dr. Fou calculated that it was capable of creating 1 billion fraudulent ad impressions a minute. It has been operating undetected for over a year. Do that math.
 But that ain’t nuthin’. Check Point also uncovered an ad fraud operation called “Fireball” that has infected 250 million computers worldwide as well as 20% of corporate networks. You can read about Fireball here.
 According to Dr. Fou, Fireball is capable of creating – you ready? – 30 billion fraudulent ad impressions a minute. I’m going to repeat that — 30 billion a minute.
 Dr. Fou called the “Judy” and “Fireball” operations “fraud on such a massive scale it is beyond belief.”
 And who’s buying these trillions of fraudulent ad impressions? That would be your company’s digital marketing experts.
 The more arrogantly confident the ad tech industry and its vacuous cheerleaders in agencies get about their “progress” to control ad fraud, the more laughable they look. And the more ridiculous advertisers look for buying into their horseshit.